In today's competitive business environment, retaining talented employees is crucial for maintaining productivity and growth. One way that businesses can encourage employee retention is by taking advantage of the employee retention tax credit (ERTC). This incentive allows employers to reduce their tax liability in exchange for keeping employees on their payroll during times of economic hardship. In this article, we will explore how ERTC works, eligibility requirements, and steps businesses can take to claim the credit.
Understanding Employee Retention Tax Credit
The employee retention tax credit was initially introduced in 2020 as part of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act) to provide financial relief for businesses affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The program offers a refundable tax credit against certain employment taxes equal to a percentage of wages paid to eligible employees during the specified period.
How Does ERTC Work?
ERTC is designed to help businesses keep employees on their payroll even if they are not working due to government-mandated closures or a significant decline in revenue caused by COVID-19. Employers can claim a tax credit on a portion of the wages paid to eligible employees during the specified time frame, which can be applied against their federal employment tax liabilities.
Calculating the Credit
The amount of ERTC available depends on the specific year and the qualifying wages paid to the employees. For example:
- 2020: Employers could claim a maximum credit of 50% of qualified wages up to $10,000 per employee, resulting in a maximum credit of $5,000 per employee.
- 2021: The credit rate increased to 70% of qualified wages up to $10,000 per employee per quarter, resulting in a maximum credit of $7,000 per employee per quarter.
Note that these amounts are subject to change as new legislation is introduced and updated.
Eligibility Requirements for ERTC
To qualify for the employee retention tax credit, businesses must meet certain eligibility criteria:
- Operate a trade or business: The credit is available to employers who carry on a trade or business during the specified period.
- Experience economic hardship: Employers must have experienced either a government-mandated full or partial suspension of their operations due to COVID-19 or a significant decline in gross receipts during the specified time frame.
- Pay eligible employees: Qualifying wages must be paid to employees who are not providing services due to the business's shutdown or reduced operations. In some cases, wages paid to employees who continue to work may also qualify if there is a significant decline in revenue.
Additionally, certain types of employers are excluded from claiming the credit, such as government entities, self-employed individuals, and businesses receiving a Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) loan.
Determining Qualified Wages
The definition of qualified wages depends on the number of full-time employees a business had in the previous year:
- Fewer than 100 employees: For employers with fewer than 100 full-time employees in 2019, all wages paid to employees during the specified period are considered qualified, regardless of whether they were working or not.
- 100 or more employees: For larger businesses, only wages paid to employees who were not providing services due to the shutdown or reduced operations are considered qualified.
Claiming Employee Retention Tax Credit
To claim ERTC, eligible employers must report their total qualified wages and the related health insurance costs on their quarterly employment tax return (Form 941). The credit will then be applied against the employer's share of social security taxes. If the credit exceeds the amount of social security taxes owed, the excess will be refundable.
Adjusting Payroll Taxes
Employers can start benefiting from the employee retention tax credit immediately by reducing their federal employment tax deposits throughout the quarter based on the anticipated credit. Employers should be cautious when adjusting their payroll tax deposits to ensure they do not underpay their employment tax liability.
Amending Prior Returns
If an employer discovers they were eligible for the ERTC after filing their quarterly employment tax return, they can still claim the credit by filing an amended return using Form 941-X.
Maximizing the Benefits of Employee Retention Tax Credit
The employee retention tax credit offers a valuable opportunity for businesses to support their workforce during challenging times while reducing their tax liabilities. To maximize the benefits of ERTC:
- Stay informed about the latest updates and changes to the program, as legislation continues to evolve in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
- Regularly evaluate your eligibility status, as new circumstances may arise that qualify your business for the credit.
- Keep accurate records of wages and other expenses associated with the credit to ensure successful claims.
- Consult with a tax professional to ensure your business is taking full advantage of all available credits and incentives.
By understanding the essentials of the employee retention tax credit, businesses can make well-informed decisions that help them retain their workforce, maintain productivity, and weather economic uncertainties.